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  #1  
Old 10-01-18, 06:15 AM
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What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Do all people have a AD(H)D phenotype?



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Old 10-01-18, 09:31 AM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

I have no idea at all what you mean by an "ADHD phenotype".

Quote:
What is genotype? What is phenotype?

HomeWhat is genotype? What is phenotype?

Your genotype is your complete heritable genetic identity; it is your unique genome that would be revealed by personal genome sequencing. However, the word genotype can also refer just to a particular gene or set of genes carried by an individual. For example, if you carry a mutation that is linked to diabetes, you may refer to your genotype just with respect to this mutation without consideration of all the other gene variants that your may carry.

In contrast, your phenotype is a description of your actual physical characteristics. This includes straightforward visible characteristics like your height and eye color, but also your overall health, your disease history, and even your behavior and general disposition. Do you gain weight easily? Are you anxious or calm? Do you like cats? These are all ways in which you present yourself to the world, and as such are considered phenotypes. However, not all phenotypes are a direct result of your genotype; chances are that your personal disposition to cats is the result of your life’s experience with pets rather than a mutation in a hypothetical cat fancier gene.

Most phenotypes are influenced by both your genotype and by the unique circumstances in which you have lived your life, including everything that has ever happened to you. We often refer to these two inputs as “nature,” the unique genome you carry, and “nurture,” the environment in which you have lived your life.
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  #3  
Old 10-01-18, 10:57 AM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Your question makes no sense to me.
No need to try and explain it though. You'll likely just make it make even less sense to me then it already does.

Quote:
phenotype...
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Quote:
genotype...
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics
.......
the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
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  #4  
Old 10-01-18, 11:01 AM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Wait...lol...are you asking if everyone is born with ADHD genes?

Are you asking if everyone is born with observable ADHD?

I get so confused with your threads lol >.<'
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Old 10-01-18, 12:54 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by psychopathetic View Post
Wait...lol...are you asking if everyone is born with ADHD genes?

Are you asking if everyone is born with observable ADHD?

I get so confused with your threads lol >.<'
None of the last dozens of questions have never produced a firm answer. what about those cliffhangers?
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  #6  
Old 10-01-18, 02:08 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Quote:
..may reflect a more severe ADHD phenotype
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-018-0207-5

Example.



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Old 10-01-18, 02:40 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Characterizing the ADHD phenotype for genetic studies

Quote:
..Heritability is the proportion of the causal factors on a characteristic that is attributable to genetic differences between children.

http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu...ype_for_ge.pdf

Found this article @ google scholar.





M
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  #8  
Old 10-01-18, 03:01 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Genotype plus environment equal phenotype?

Affective comorbidity genotype (example, early chronic anxiety, etc) plus environment equal ADHD phenotype?




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  #9  
Old 10-01-18, 03:34 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Phenotype is what's expressed/observable/measurable in an organism -- be it a physical trait, a behavior pattern, results on cognitive tests, or whatever. (Excluding genotype.)

What contributes to phenotype varies. This often includes both genetic and environmental factors. In some cases, a particular genotype may consistently lead to a particular phenotype, regardless of environment. In other cases, a genotype will lead to a particular phenotype only in the presence of certain environmental factors.

An "ADHD phenotype" refers to a collection of observable or measurable ADHD-associated behaviors/symptoms/traits a person displays.

Depending on who's doing the looking and how and what their notion of "ADHD" is, researchers most often would include observable symptoms like those in the DSM (perhaps with some assessment of associated impairments) as part of the "ADHD phenotype".

A "more severe ADHD phenotype" generally means "displaying more (or more severe) ADHD symptoms" (or suffering more severe life consequences/impairments). (Sometimes it's hard to separate the symptoms from the resulting impairments, and that's been a criticism of the current DSM diagnostic criteria. But that's a discussion for another thread!)

Some researchers might also be interested in the results of certain cognitive or neurological tests, brain scans, measurements of physical activity or impulse control, or other behavioral traits that aren't specifically listed in the DSM (like "novelty-seeking"), etc. Specific patterns on these sorts of measures, or selected groups of symptoms that seem to travel together as a group, are sometimes called "endophenotypes".

"Endophenotype" refers to a more restricted set of characteristics that may represent a particular underlying mechanism or etiology (cause). They don't necessarily apply to all people with ADHD, but maybe capture a subset who have a particular "flavor" that may (or may not) be caused by a particular set of genetic and/or environmental circumstances. And these people, as a group, may respond or not respond better to certain interventions/treatments.

With most mental disorders, we start with a phenotype (because that's what's easiest to see) and then trying to work backwards to figure out what factors shaped or led to that phenotype. Endophenotypes within a broader pehnotype, as well as phenotypes shared across mental disorders, can sometimes help us evaluate and refine our ideas about causes and treatments.

Last edited by namazu; 10-01-18 at 03:47 PM..
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  #10  
Old 10-01-18, 03:44 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by mildadhd View Post
Found this article @ google scholar.


Quote:
Characterizing the ADHD phenotype for genetic studies

Quote:
..Heritability is the proportion of the causal factors on a characteristic that is attributable to genetic differences between children.

http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu...ype_for_ge.pdf


M
I couldn't find that quote in your linked article.
Listing the page number and paragraph location would have helped.

I found this interesting (page 118, bottom left and top right)

Quote:
A number of genes have been suggested as being implicated
in ADHD. The largest group are those affecting
the transmission at synapses including the serotonin
transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) (e.g. Manor et al., 2001),
dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) (e.g. see metaanalysis
by Faraone et al., 2001), dopamine transporter
gene (DAT1) (e.g. Daly et al., 1999), dopamine D5 receptor
gene (DRD5) (e.g. Payton et al., 2004) and SNAP-25
(e.g. Mill et al., 2002; Mill et al., 2004).

This raises the
question of how these genes combine to effect the risk
of ADHD, for example, do they act additively or are
certain combinations of risk alleles particularly potent?

There is also a question of whether different genes
contribute to specific aspects of the ADHD phenotype,
for example, do particular genes influence impulsivity
and others play a greater role in inattention?

Using a
quantitative behaviour genetic analysis, Todd et al. (2001)
have shown that the concordance for MZ pairs for the
combined and inattentive types of DSM-IV ADHD are
83% compared to 69% for DZ. This indicates that the type
of ADHD is transmissible and that genes play a role.
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Old 10-01-18, 05:15 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by mildadhd View Post
What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Do all people have a AD(H)D phenotype?



M
Do you mean symptoms of ADHD? How does ADHD look in humans?? Son anything that people with ADHD are more likely to do differently (and differently in a similar manner to other adhders) than non adhders?
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Old 10-01-18, 09:13 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by namazu View Post
Phenotype is what's expressed/observable/measurable in an organism -- be it a physical trait, a behavior pattern, results on cognitive tests, or whatever. (Excluding genotype.)

What contributes to phenotype varies. This often includes both genetic and environmental factors. In some cases, a particular genotype may consistently lead to a particular phenotype, regardless of environment. In other cases, a genotype will lead to a particular phenotype only in the presence of certain environmental factors.

An "ADHD phenotype" refers to a collection of observable or measurable ADHD-associated behaviors/symptoms/traits a person displays.

Depending on who's doing the looking and how and what their notion of "ADHD" is, researchers most often would include observable symptoms like those in the DSM (perhaps with some assessment of associated impairments) as part of the "ADHD phenotype".

A "more severe ADHD phenotype" generally means "displaying more (or more severe) ADHD symptoms" (or suffering more severe life consequences/impairments). (Sometimes it's hard to separate the symptoms from the resulting impairments, and that's been a criticism of the current DSM diagnostic criteria. But that's a discussion for another thread!)

Some researchers might also be interested in the results of certain cognitive or neurological tests, brain scans, measurements of physical activity or impulse control, or other behavioral traits that aren't specifically listed in the DSM (like "novelty-seeking"), etc. Specific patterns on these sorts of measures, or selected groups of symptoms that seem to travel together as a group, are sometimes called "endophenotypes".

"Endophenotype" refers to a more restricted set of characteristics that may represent a particular underlying mechanism or etiology (cause). They don't necessarily apply to all people with ADHD, but maybe capture a subset who have a particular "flavor" that may (or may not) be caused by a particular set of genetic and/or environmental circumstances. And these people, as a group, may respond or not respond better to certain interventions/treatments.

With most mental disorders, we start with a phenotype (because that's what's easiest to see) and then trying to work backwards to figure out what factors shaped or led to that phenotype. Endophenotypes within a broader pehnotype, as well as phenotypes shared across mental disorders, can sometimes help us evaluate and refine our ideas about causes and treatments.

Endogenotypes?




M
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  #13  
Old 10-01-18, 10:00 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Fuzzy12 View Post
Do you mean symptoms of ADHD? How does ADHD look in humans?? Son anything that people with ADHD are more likely to do differently (and differently in a similar manner to other adhders) than non adhders?
Do all people have the same genetic brain systems required to have AD(H)D?






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Old 10-01-18, 10:02 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Lunacie View Post
I couldn't find that quote in your linked article.
Listing the page number and paragraph location would have helped.
Page one.




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Old 10-01-18, 11:09 PM
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Re: What is a AD(H)D phenotype?

If there is a AD(H)D phenotype, is there a AD(H)D genotype?









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