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  #1  
Old 06-22-18, 10:00 PM
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A Biological marker for ADHD

It's been a long while coming but it's looking like we might have a good candidate.


Much of our attention is directed by looking at the item we are attending to, so it is no surprise that eye movements would be relevant to ADHD.







So here is some of the science underlying that presentation:
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...trum_Disorders

That is the one being talked about in the video. the main subject of that study was fetal alcohol syndrome- which has some features that look alot like ADHD. The test did separate out the 2 conditions.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/...urnalCode=pssa


Quote:

Results showed that saccades of neurotypical participants were inhibited prior to the onset of stimuli that appeared at predictable compared with less predictable times. No such inhibition was found in most participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and particularly not in those who experienced difficulties in sustaining attention over time.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ivity_Disorder


Quote:
In the pro-saccade task, ADHD participants had longer reaction times, greater intra-subject variance, and their saccades had reduced peak velocities and increased durations. In the anti-saccade task, ADHD participants had greater difficulty suppressing reflexive pro-saccades toward the eccentric target, increased reaction times for correct anti-saccades, and greater intra-subject variance. In a third task requiring prolonged fixation, ADHD participants generated more intrusive saccades during periods when they were required to maintain steady fixation.
At this stage the total science is sketchy, so we are not fully aware of the exact sensitivity and specificity of these physical tests.

There certainly need to be more that look at foveation (the ability to look steadily at a subject of interest), and also pursuits, and convergence.


The foveation deficit in us ADDers is often quite marked. SB_UK argued with me stating that this was we cant help looking at the world and that this curiosity is an example of our spiritual development.


I don't think that is the case though, the cases of foveation deficits that I have seen involve rapid jerky movements away from the target (me) and back- without a fixation at the end of the wandering movement. (IE there is not enough time to fixate on whatever the eye moved to).
Convergence is a whole other subject- one for later.


Regardless, this is data is fit to use if you are ever confronted by someone trying to convince you that ADHD is not real.
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Old 06-25-18, 11:29 PM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Just in the middle of an ??? exercise in sex reversal by nuclear hormone receptor, pharmacogenetics of warfarin and gene interactions between GSNOR and b2AR in asthma - and I'm not too sure why ??? Oh well.

Anyway - I don't see ***anything*** with my eyes - absolutely nothing registers - as I shift into another space in which the information enters but is not registered.

This image might serve to help.
http://static.enotes.com/images/amer..._0_img0167.jpg
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Old 07-24-18, 03:18 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by SB_UK View Post
Just in the middle of an ??? exercise in sex reversal by nuclear hormone receptor, pharmacogenetics of warfarin and gene interactions between GSNOR and b2AR in asthma - and I'm not too sure why ??? Oh well.

Anyway - I don't see ***anything*** with my eyes - absolutely nothing registers - as I shift into another space in which the information enters but is not registered.

This image might serve to help.
http://static.enotes.com/images/amer..._0_img0167.jpg



You need somebody else to examine them for you.
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Old 07-24-18, 06:35 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kunga Dorji View Post
You need somebody else to examine them for you.
Without thinking too deeply - this would appear to be the reason why.

Quote:
When the eyes move in a saccade there is saccadic suppression of the information arriving via the optic nerve from the eyes. There are signals arriving and they affect brain activity but they do not register in consciousness; the gap in visual information is also hidden from consciousness.
https://dyslectern.info/2015/09/03/r...-and-saccades/

Greater emphasis on an internal rather than an external model of reality.

Not thinking too deeply about this idea though.

external model of reality - where the animal/child/indvidual without a mind exists ie believing external reality to be 'real'
internal model of reality - the type of mind which can see through the elaborate evolutionary illusion

Without seeing the article above - I'd have switched to a model of increased information entering through the eyes - ie increased information recruitment from the external environment.

Both appeal - not too sure which is right - though - as mentioned - does it matter if we're internal or external quality of information oriented if we're not able to use our eyes/develop our mind - hence the nature of most of my comments here.
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Old 07-24-18, 10:46 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by SB_UK View Post
Without thinking too deeply - this would appear to be the reason why.


https://dyslectern.info/2015/09/03/r...-and-saccades/

Greater emphasis on an internal rather than an external model of reality.

Not thinking too deeply about this idea though.

external model of reality - where the animal/child/indvidual without a mind exists ie believing external reality to be 'real'
internal model of reality - the type of mind which can see through the elaborate evolutionary illusion

Without seeing the article above - I'd have switched to a model of increased information entering through the eyes - ie increased information recruitment from the external environment.

Both appeal - not too sure which is right - though - as mentioned - does it matter if we're internal or external quality of information oriented if we're not able to use our eyes/develop our mind - hence the nature of most of my comments here.

The real reasons that you need someone to do the examination for you are much simpler- you wont see the movement if you are relying on a mirror. (As a small boy, I could never work out why my eyes always looked straight at the mirror no matter how hard i tried), 2- you need an external locus of control to tell you when to saccade,
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Old 06-25-18, 11:52 PM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

PFC prefrontal cortex

ACC anterior cingulate cortex

PFC damage in FAS - PFC rejection in ADHD (for ACC reward system); in FAS there won't be a reward centre replacement set up - FAS will represent damage (addictive centre) to PFC - whereas in ADHD we're deprecating PFC to ACC.

So - the 'blankness' in ADHD might be taken to indicate the unimpeded flow of information (Doors or Perception open) and a focus elsewhere.
But where ?
At the heart of ADHD is (of course) a different mechanism for obtaining reward.

If we were able to generate reward from standard reward reinforcers in society (ie beating other people) - then we would ... ... would not procrastinate.

However - the ADDer is not competition reward system oriented - and so does not feel a sense of achievement through taking that path in life.

So what does the ADDer want ? To develop (proper definition of learning) quality.

So - three ideas from the last 15 years of ADHD - 'quality' (see Pirsig's 'Metaphysics of Quality' has come up regularly), cerebellar correlate of quality (the neural gateway into the logical (pattern recognition) element of quality and saccades through ADDF/Stabile and ADDF/Barbyma.

So ... ... the blankness, slowness or retraction from 'reality' which we associate with FAS (brain damage) might appear to want to connect to the slowness/blankness/retraction from 'reality' which we associate with ADHD ... ... but they're different.


Simple test - if the ADDer has insight - then the ADDer will be able to identify a perfect environment (low stimulation because of high sensitivity) where they're ABSOLUTELY fine - ideally a million miles away from other human beings; I've attempted this and given an environment of low stimulation (and sufficient money in this current crazy world of only money) - one can enter and remain in a positive headspace.


The guy with FAS will not be able to locate an environment in which their deficits correct.

-*-

What's the problem with ADHD ? with a 'big picture' mind - it's impossible to consider all possible angles to a problem simultaneously - which of course puts us at a disadvantage to molecular minds (not big picture minds) which can black box a problem. NO problem can be blackboxed - we're in a fundamentally interconnected reality in which we must take account of all things together.
So - somebody might come up with a new biologic which inhibits the immune system - however the big picture mind will not be able to remove the idea that we've evolved over millions of years to have an immune system - you can't just delete an aspect and hope to remain functional.
So - somebody might come up with the idea that a common disease is genetic - and then spend 20 years discovering statistical anomalies which're of ZERO clinical significance - and the ADDer in the face of this form of lying will (and quite rightly) not be able to attend - this type (and much of mecdical/life sciences research) is COMPLETE rubbish - biological research has become a fishing expedition thanks to -OMICs.


Unfortunately - academia/University has created disciplines which have all 'separated' and no longer are able (through esoteric language of discipline) communicate.

A splintering of the global human mind.

All that we're required to see -is that all of this is a relatively recent phenomenon - that a 'sufficient' understanding (associated with enlightenment) was possible hundreds - thousands of years ago through use of simple reasoning and observation.

The generation of molecular detail in ALL disciplines and simplistic simplifying even if complex mathematics does not help - ensures publication - but nobody is ever the wiser.

What is ADHD ? Novel emergence of sensitivity to (sensory) information.
Habituation to developing sensitivity to (sensory) information.
Incapacity to pay attention to money/power/competition since the ADDer is programmed to aspire to the development of intrinsic quality.

Learning (research) and Development - but not of some only-for-profit widget on the outside - but the terms R&D as they apply on the inside.

To research (learn) and develop (become of ever greater personal quality).

So - the connection with FAS wants to take us on a path into adverse uterine exposure to some aspect (distress is the usual factor) which gave rise to the disease of ADHD.

However - ADHD is not a disease - it's increasing sensory world sensitivity which gives way to distress in a world in which the individual is not able to concentrate on development of self - because society insists that s/he must focus on competition (beating) other people. Beating other people is easy - but not rewarding - and so we can't do it.

Underneath it all - we're looking (in ADHD) at the development of a novel reward system - and since reward system is a specification of a species - it is reasonable to state that the ADDer is a novel species.

pre-ADD Homo sapiens sapiens
ADD Homo neosapiens sapienses

The ADDer tires of life in what will come to be called the Age of Stupid in which people had insufficient of a mind to synthesize all available information - and to realise that animals may appear to compete - but to be properly human - we collaborate to generate a world in which we can each individually become the best that we can be. ALL human beings can be of great personal quality - there's nothing stopping us all from being of high personal quality other than a societal infrastructure which places human beings in a zero sum game where that same infrastructure propels human beings like animals to strive towards getting as large a slice of the pie as is possible - inequality extends and all sectors of society (even the very rich) fail.
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Old 07-14-18, 07:16 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by SB_UK View Post
PFC prefrontal cortex

ACC anterior cingulate cortex

PFC damage in FAS - PFC rejection in ADHD (for ACC reward system); in FAS there won't be a reward centre replacement set up - FAS will represent damage (addictive centre) to PFC - whereas in ADHD we're deprecating PFC to ACC.

So - the 'blankness' in ADHD might be taken to indicate the unimpeded flow of information (Doors or Perception open) and a focus elsewhere.
But where ?
At the heart of ADHD is (of course) a different mechanism for obtaining reward.

If we were able to generate reward from standard reward reinforcers in society (ie beating other people) - then we would ... ... would not procrastinate.

However - the ADDer is not competition reward system oriented - and so does not feel a sense of achievement through taking that path in life.

So what does the ADDer want ? To develop (proper definition of learning) quality.

So - three ideas from the last 15 years of ADHD - 'quality' (see Pirsig's 'Metaphysics of Quality' has come up regularly), cerebellar correlate of quality (the neural gateway into the logical (pattern recognition) element of quality and saccades through ADDF/Stabile and ADDF/Barbyma.

So ... ... the blankness, slowness or retraction from 'reality' which we associate with FAS (brain damage) might appear to want to connect to the slowness/blankness/retraction from 'reality' which we associate with ADHD ... ... but they're different.


Simple test - if the ADDer has insight - then the ADDer will be able to identify a perfect environment (low stimulation because of high sensitivity) where they're ABSOLUTELY fine - ideally a million miles away from other human beings; I've attempted this and given an environment of low stimulation (and sufficient money in this current crazy world of only money) - one can enter and remain in a positive headspace.


The guy with FAS will not be able to locate an environment in which their deficits correct.

-*-

What's the problem with ADHD ? with a 'big picture' mind - it's impossible to consider all possible angles to a problem simultaneously - which of course puts us at a disadvantage to molecular minds (not big picture minds) which can black box a problem. NO problem can be blackboxed - we're in a fundamentally interconnected reality in which we must take account of all things together.
So - somebody might come up with a new biologic which inhibits the immune system - however the big picture mind will not be able to remove the idea that we've evolved over millions of years to have an immune system - you can't just delete an aspect and hope to remain functional.
So - somebody might come up with the idea that a common disease is genetic - and then spend 20 years discovering statistical anomalies which're of ZERO clinical significance - and the ADDer in the face of this form of lying will (and quite rightly) not be able to attend - this type (and much of mecdical/life sciences research) is COMPLETE rubbish - biological research has become a fishing expedition thanks to -OMICs.


Unfortunately - academia/University has created disciplines which have all 'separated' and no longer are able (through esoteric language of discipline) communicate.

A splintering of the global human mind.

All that we're required to see -is that all of this is a relatively recent phenomenon - that a 'sufficient' understanding (associated with enlightenment) was possible hundreds - thousands of years ago through use of simple reasoning and observation.

The generation of molecular detail in ALL disciplines and simplistic simplifying even if complex mathematics does not help - ensures publication - but nobody is ever the wiser.

What is ADHD ? Novel emergence of sensitivity to (sensory) information.
Habituation to developing sensitivity to (sensory) information.
Incapacity to pay attention to money/power/competition since the ADDer is programmed to aspire to the development of intrinsic quality.

Learning (research) and Development - but not of some only-for-profit widget on the outside - but the terms R&D as they apply on the inside.

To research (learn) and develop (become of ever greater personal quality).

So - the connection with FAS wants to take us on a path into adverse uterine exposure to some aspect (distress is the usual factor) which gave rise to the disease of ADHD.

However - ADHD is not a disease - it's increasing sensory world sensitivity which gives way to distress in a world in which the individual is not able to concentrate on development of self - because society insists that s/he must focus on competition (beating) other people. Beating other people is easy - but not rewarding - and so we can't do it.

Underneath it all - we're looking (in ADHD) at the development of a novel reward system - and since reward system is a specification of a species - it is reasonable to state that the ADDer is a novel species.

pre-ADD Homo sapiens sapiens
ADD Homo neosapiens sapienses

The ADDer tires of life in what will come to be called the Age of Stupid in which people had insufficient of a mind to synthesize all available information - and to realise that animals may appear to compete - but to be properly human - we collaborate to generate a world in which we can each individually become the best that we can be. ALL human beings can be of great personal quality - there's nothing stopping us all from being of high personal quality other than a societal infrastructure which places human beings in a zero sum game where that same infrastructure propels human beings like animals to strive towards getting as large a slice of the pie as is possible - inequality extends and all sectors of society (even the very rich) fail.



So here's a big problem:
The whole "reward system" cant was developed by people within academia who really have a rather odd idea of "reward". I think that they are unwell.
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Old 07-23-18, 10:35 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kunga Dorji View Post
So here's a big problem:
The whole "reward system" cant was developed by people within academia who really have a rather odd idea of "reward". I think that they are unwell.
The reward system is essential t understand.

The idea of how motivation arises.

If something motivates (rewards) then people do it.

All that's essential for us to see - is that there are 2 reward systems which can produce motivation.

Primitive - to beat another (eg in pro sport)
Higher - to help another (that feeling of pleasure that one can get from helping another regardless of whoever else knows)
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Old 06-26-18, 12:13 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Next line of thought - 'stimulation' through optical channel.
When we're sensitive to information - become 'stimulation' adverse.

So - need minimal stimulation as information (due to sensitivity) in ADDer can overload.

Nerve seeks sweet spot of using - neither too little nor too much.

In a hypersensitive system (see Markram&Markram Intense World Theory) - which gives rise to the psychiatric disorder spectrum - ie which allows us (at last!!) to separate neurology and psych- into separate boxes - we are required to find the sweet spot in information access which MUST mean the individual choosing when they want more ('Nerve seeks sweet spot of using - neither too little nor too much') or less stimulation ('Nerve seeks sweet spot of using - neither too little nor too much').

What's the take home message ? In ADHD we're looking at student-led teaching as the student's mind defines when information may or may not be taken up.

Yes - but then isn't the ADDer mind much worse than the nonADDer mind ?
No - the nonADDer mind is able to absorb (and with glee) COMPLETE NONSENSE.

The very great majority of what we've written including science (notably) - is rubbish.

Now - let's go back 15 years here:
Quote:
Originally Posted by Stabile View Post
Hey, SB:
Here are some quick points from the end of your post:
There’s a desperate sense to the genetic studies I’ve seen. The problem is that the statistical view has a compelling nature, and the dangers aren’t obvious. But the result is bad science, in my not so humble opinion.
Absolutely categorically - modern medical/life sciences has been infested with mathematical statistics which is hopelessly wrong and embarrassingly so.
With the incapacity to imagine a problem - human beings are spending $billions trying to find solutions to problems which we're responsible for causing and can remove if we choose.

To use just one example - the entire body of life sciences has shifted to studies upon the genome - with the rationale that a heritability score (high) is the sign of geneticness.

This idea has been disproven through epigenetics / biomics (mitochondrial inheritance too) which are two levels (I've checked) of increasing the heritability score - and generating a FALSE statistic.

In other words - that life science research is balanced on NONSENSE.
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Old 06-26-18, 12:18 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

So - what's the basis to ALL disease ?
See 3 recent threads in two Science fora on 'All disease may be prevented'.

In much the same way that no human being doubts that T2D/Obesity are preventable so we make the jump -> >40% cancers relate to obesity (therefore all preventable) -> connection between somatic mutation (cancer) and somatic mutation in meiosis (developmental disorders) (therefore preventable) --> the basis to the 100,000 genome study

... ... we arrive at the simple idea that:
comfort eating -> leads to -> obesity/T2D and all other diseases

- where all we're then required to do is determine why people are in discomfort (see Marmot's research).

-*-

That is - that ALL human disease results indirectly from having a flat (equality) global structure of man.
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Old 07-14-18, 07:23 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by SB_UK View Post
So - what's the basis to ALL disease ?
See 3 recent threads in two Science fora on 'All disease may be prevented'.

In much the same way that no human being doubts that T2D/Obesity are preventable so we make the jump -> >40% cancers relate to obesity (therefore all preventable) -> connection between somatic mutation (cancer) and somatic mutation in meiosis (developmental disorders) (therefore preventable) --> the basis to the 100,000 genome study

... ... we arrive at the simple idea that:
comfort eating -> leads to -> obesity/T2D and all other diseases

- where all we're then required to do is determine why people are in discomfort (see Marmot's research).

-*-

That is - that ALL human disease results indirectly from having a flat (equality) global structure of man.
SB-- you know my trade.
I'm not interested in big broad fancy ideas about "the cause of all disease".
I see people who have real life problems and want help.
They want help so they can get on with their lives, and travel their own paths, making their own contributions, as do I.

I think that if you are looking for THE basis for all disease, you are going to find either something that is too vague and allegedly spiritual to be of benefit
This is the trap-- these big global views don't give us a tool that we can use to help free people up so that they can help themselves.
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Old 07-23-18, 10:51 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kunga Dorji View Post
SB-- you know my trade.
I'm not interested in big broad fancy ideas about "the cause of all disease".
I see people who have real life problems and want help.
They want help so they can get on with their lives, and travel their own paths, making their own contributions, as do I.

I think that if you are looking for THE basis for all disease, you are going to find either something that is too vague and allegedly spiritual to be of benefit
This is the trap-- these big global views don't give us a tool that we can use to help free people up so that they can help themselves.
All disease results as a consequence of psychological distress through life in an adverse psychosocial environment through hierarchy.

The problem is - is that there's no mechanism of doing anything about disease unless its fundamental aetiology is understood.

So - sure - in the case of asthma - you can throw more 'SNS agonist' onto the lungs - or through more steroid into the body - but the body is already swimming in too much SNS activation / stress - so we're simply going to increase resistance and thereby dependence on ever greater levels of administration of drug.

It's ever so simple.

Resistance syndromes occur when we produce too much of an agent through downregulation of receptor numbers.

The goal is to generate an appropriately sensitive system not to develop a resistant system.

It's the exact same story in standard drug abuse - where people require ever more thtough 'Tolerance'.

If the train above is understood - then it's clear that any medic / medical scientist needs to put down their tools - and work out a mechanism for arriving at a fair society.

This arises through defining the point of mind ie morality and then defining the mechanism by which min can form (generalized Theory of Everything). We thereby generate a species of moral people - who interact appropriately with others - ie true equality of man not hierarchy. People no longer fear other people nor are required to do as they're told ... ... stress levels drop and the physiological environment establishes itself in appropriate sensitive form.

Should mention that we can develop excess resistance and excess sentivity ie pathological resistance and pathological sensitivity. The goal is an environemnt in which balance of and between two competing systems occurs.

Can be viewed much as we do a pair-bond. A complementary partnership and neither one nor the other forcing their unsubstantiated views on the other. Balance. Optimal balance.
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Old 07-23-18, 03:24 PM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

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Originally Posted by Kunga Dorji View Post
SB-- you know my trade.
I'm not interested in big broad fancy ideas about "the cause of all disease".
I see people who have real life problems and want help.
They want help so they can get on with their lives, and travel their own paths, making their own contributions, as do I.

I think that if you are looking for THE basis for all disease, you are going to find either something that is too vague and allegedly spiritual to be of benefit
This is the trap-- these big global views don't give us a tool that we can use to help free people up so that they can help themselves.
science - mind is an evolutionary property
science - mind is meant to be a model of morality
science - if 1,2 not acknowledged - man burns in his own inflammatory ignorance
science - inflammation underlies all common disorders of Western (disjointed) living


IF healthcare professional AND NOT generating global community THEN part of the problem.
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Old 12-31-19, 04:18 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kunga Dorji View Post
SB-- you know my trade.
I'm not interested in big broad fancy ideas about "the cause of all disease".
I see people who have real life problems and want help.
They want help so they can get on with their lives, and travel their own paths, making their own contributions, as do I.

I think that if you are looking for THE basis for all disease, you are going to find either something that is too vague and allegedly spiritual to be of benefit
This is the trap-- these big global views don't give us a tool that we can use to help free people up so that they can help themselves.



Having said that, I do believe there is value in the spiritual traditions, and I and I do believe that their views are based on direct interaction with reality-- even if they have sometimes used some complex belief systems to explain what is going on. I do not know how that fits in to a view of the whole universe, but it does seem to produce clinical results.

Acupucture is possibly based on empirical experimentation (though I doubt that is the whole story). Regardless, the early experiments came up with a model of meridians etc which looks positively loopy to the Western mind. Her3e's the catch-- that system of meridians generated a whole new class of treatments, all of which seem to work-- if you know enough to follow the system.

So next, we come to another anomoly:-
When meditating or doing QiGong, we are supposed to work with our tongue pressing against the back of our front upper teeth (the incisors).
I had always taken that as mere superstition (arrogant Westerner that I was).
Yeah, ok, bulldust, bulldust, whatever makes you happy.

A couple of weeks after I came across 2 papers proving that adopting that tongue posture improves postural stability AND isometric strength of a bent knee.

These are simple experiments and can be replicated any time someone in a university can collect the funds to do it.

The bottom line for me is to take spiritual traditions very seriously when they focus on a small detail, but to also remember the enormous translation differences that we have in sorting out how we should apply these traditions to everyday life.


In the meantime- a key message to me is to sit up straight and keep your tongue pressing against the back of your upper incisors when trying to concentrate.
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Old 06-26-18, 12:41 AM
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Re: A Biological marker for ADHD

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The foveation deficit in us ADDers is often quite marked. SB_UK argued with me stating that this was we cant help looking at the world and that this curiosity is an example of our spiritual development.
Foveation - to shift one's focus from location to location.
Imagine an idea - to shift one's focus to every perspective in an idea.
The Big Picture.
Capacity to see any idea from every perspective (the consequence of completed or collapsed or circular mind) - permits us the capacity to reject NONSENSE by simply thinking about any given problem.

So -3 examples-
[1]OMICSs is nonsense as it's holds the capacity to generate an infinite amount of data - complicates not simplifies the problem.
[2]The use of stats/servers to crank through data removes ideas from human grasp - man becomes dependent on analytical procedures which the individual can not perform alone - the idea of disenfranchising oneself from mind.
[3]The storage of data (bioinformatics) which NOBODY ever will be able to use - most techs now moving so quickly that it's easier to regenerate data (much more data) than previously. Why study 1 genome when you can have 100,000 ?

Money and Effort - being poured into pseudoscience.

-*-

But how can I be sure that we won't generate a drug which'll help ?
Human beings are far too complicated to fix - we need to embrace maintain physiology not correct pathophysiology as our approach - and this can be done by simply realising that we have 3 components - a mind, body and spirit - and eustress/distress takes on a different meaning on each of these hierarchical levels - however that if we can correct mind we correct spirit and correct body ie in the presence of an individual developing and species-wide moral mind, that 'spirit' (reward system - personal betterment) and 'body' (a healthy lifestyle) - then follow.

'Rat Park' is useful as it takes us back to the comment above of defining an appropriate environment in which distress does not occur -> comfort food consumption does not occur -> T2D/Obesity then do not occur...

But then T2D researchers know all of this :-).

The entire basis to human disease arises through the understadning that we're in the midst of a speciation event in which informational sensitivity is arising, morality (understanding) on an individual/species level is long overdue thanks to the physicists of the 20th century

- and we're required to begin again - with our lives defined by the quest for quality and not to beat other people (the basis to money/power acquisition or reward) down.
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