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Old 06-30-18, 10:16 PM
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Re: What does narcissist and psychopath mean?

The word "Narcissist" originates from the story of Narcissus in Greek mythology -- a man who fell in love with his own reflection.

There is a diagnosis in the DSM called "Narcissistic Personality Disorder" (NPD).

The DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for NPD were as follows:
Quote:
Originally Posted by DSM-IV-TR
A. A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
1. Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements).
2. Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.
3. Believes that he or she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions).
4. Requires excessive admiration.
5. Has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations.
6. Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends.
7. Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
8. Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her.
9. Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
In addition, a person would have to meet some general criteria for personality disorder in order to qualify for this diagnosis.

In DSM-5, these criteria were changed slightly (after some discussion of removing the diagnosis and replacing it with a more dimensional personality disorder diagnosis). A version I found from June 2011 gives the diagnostic criteria as follows:
Quote:
Originally Posted by pre-DSM 5, June 2011 revisions
The essential features of a personality disorder are impairments in personality (self and interpersonal) functioning and the presence of pathological personality traits. To diagnose narcissistic personality disorder, the following criteria must be met:
A. Significant impairments in personality functioning manifest by:
1. Impairments in self functioning (a or b):
a. Identity: Excessive reference to others for self-definition and self-esteem regulation; exaggerated self-appraisal may be inflated or deflated, or vacillate between extremes; emotional regulation mirrors fluctuations in self-esteem.
b. Self-direction: Goal-setting is based on gaining approval from others; personal standards are unreasonably high in order to see oneself as exceptional, or too low based on a sense of entitlement; often unaware of own motivations.
AND
2. Impairments in interpersonal functioning (a or b):
a. Empathy: Impaired ability to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others; excessively attuned to reactions of others, but only if perceived as relevant to self; over- or underestimate of own effect on others.
b. Intimacy: Relationships largely superficial and exist to serve self-esteem regulation; mutuality constrained by little genuine interest in others‟ experiences and predominance of a need for personal gain
B. Pathological personality traits in the following domain:
1. Antagonism, characterized by:
a. Grandiosity: Feelings of entitlement, either overt or covert; self-centeredness; firmly holding to the belief that one is better than others; condescending toward others.
b. Attention seeking: Excessive attempts to attract and be the focus of the attention of others; admiration seeking.
C. The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are relatively stable across time and consistent across situations.
D. The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are not better understood as normative for the individual‟s developmental stage or socio-cultural environment.
E. The impairments in personality functioning and the individual‟s personality trait expression are not solely due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., severe head trauma).
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Psychopathy is another word whose usage has changed through time.

Roughly speaking, the word is often used to describe people who seem to lack what might be called a conscience -- people who cause pain or harm to others and don't feel bad about it.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) in the DSM, or Dissocial Personality Disorder in the ICD, are diagnoses that are sometimes given to people who in some cases might be described as psychopaths. (There are other definitions of psychopathy and ways of assessing it, too, some of which are narrower.)
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